This form handles system startups and shutdowns. The adjkerntz utility is invoked with this option from /etc/rc on entry to multi-user mode, before any other daemons have been started. The adjkerntz utility puts itself into the background. Then, for a local time CMOS clock, adjkerntz reads the local time from it and sets the kernel clock to the corresponding UTC time. The adjkerntz utility also stores the local time zone offset into the machdep.adjkerntz kernel variable, for use by subsequent invocations of "adjkerntz -a" and by local time file systems.
For a local time CMOS clock "adjkerntz -i" pauses, and remains inactive as a background daemon until it receives a SIGTERM. The SIGTERM will normally be sent by init(8) when the system leaves multi-user mode (usually, because the system is being shut down). After receiving the SIGTERM, adjkerntz reads the UTC kernel clock and updates the CMOS clock, if necessary, to ensure that it reflects the current local time zone. Then adjkerntz exits.
This form is used to update the local time CMOS clock and kernel machdep.adjkerntz variable when time zone changes occur, e.g., when entering or leaving daylight savings time. The adjkerntz utility uses the kernel clocks UTC time, the previously stored time zone offset, and the changed time zone rule to calculate a new time zone offset. It stores the new offset into the machdep.adjkerntz kernel variable, and updates the wall CMOS clock to the new local time. If "adjkerntz -a" was started at a nonexistent time (during a timezone change), it exits with a warning diagnostic unless the -s option was used, in which case adjkerntz sleeps 30 minutes and tries again.
This form should be invoked from roots crontab(5) every half hour between midnight and 5am, when most modern time zone changes occur. Warning: do not use the -s option in a crontab(5) command line, or multiple "adjkerntz -a" instances could conflict with each other.
The adjkerntz utility clears the kernel timezone structure and makes the kernel clock run in the UTC time zone. Super-user privileges are required for all operations.