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FTW (3) | C library functions | Unix Manual Pages | :man


ftw, nftw - traverse (walk) a file tree


Return Values
See Also


.In ftw.h int
.Fo ftw "const char *path" "int lp]*fnrp]lp]const char *, const struct stat *, intrp]" "int maxfds"
.Fc int
.Fo nftw "const char *path" "int lp]*fnrp]lp](const char *, const struct stat *, int, struct FTW *rp]" "int maxfds" "int flags"


The ftw and nftw functions traverse (walk) the directory hierarchy rooted in path. For each object in the hierarchy, these functions call the function pointed to by fn. The ftw function passes this function a pointer to a NUL -terminated string containing the name of the object, a pointer to a
.Vt stat structure corresponding to the object, and an integer flag. The nftw function passes the aforementioned arguments plus a pointer to a
.Vt FTW structure as defined by
.In ftw.h (shown below):
struct FTW {
int base; /* offset of basename into pathname */
int level; /* directory depth relative to starting point */

Possible values for the flag passed to fn are:

FTW_F A regular file.
FTW_D A directory being visited in pre-order.
FTW_DNR A directory which cannot be read. The directory will not be descended into.
FTW_DP A directory being visited in post-order ( nftw only).
FTW_NS A file for which no stat(2) information was available. The contents of the
.Vt stat structure are undefined.
FTW_SL A symbolic link.
FTW_SLN A symbolic link with a non-existent target ( nftw only).

The ftw function traverses the tree in pre-order. That is, it processes the directory before the directory’s contents.

The maxfds argument specifies the maximum number of file descriptors to keep open while traversing the tree. It has no effect in this implementation.

The nftw function has an additional flags argument with the following possible values:

FTW_PHYS Physical walk, do not follow symbolic links.
FTW_MOUNT The walk will not cross a mount point.
FTW_DEPTH Process directories in post-order. Contents of a directory are visited before the directory itself. By default, nftw traverses the tree in pre-order.
FTW_CHDIR Change to a directory before reading it. By default, nftw will change its starting directory. The current working directory will be restored to its original value before nftw returns.


If the tree was traversed successfully, the ftw and nftw functions return 0. If the function pointed to by fn returns a non-zero value, ftw and nftw will stop processing the tree and return the value from fn. Both functions return -1 if an error is detected.


The ftw and nftw functions may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified for the library functions close(2), open(2), stat(2), malloc(3), opendir(3) and readdir(3). If the FTW_CHDIR flag is set, the nftw function may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified for chdir(2). In addition, either function may fail and set errno as follows:
The maxfds argument is less than 1.


chdir(2), close(2), open(2), stat(2), fts(3), malloc(3), opendir(3), readdir(3)




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