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hier - layout of file systems


See Also


A sketch of the file system hierarchy.
/ root directory of the file system
/bin/ user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
/boot/ programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap

defaults/ default bootstrapping configuration files; see loader.conf(5)
kernel/ pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory at boot time).
modules/ third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)
/cdrom/ default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by sysinstall(8))
/compat/ normally a link to /usr/compat. If not, then the /usr/compat comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))
/dev/ device special files managed by devfs(5)

fd/ file descriptor files; see fd(4)
net/ network devices
/dist/ mount point used by sysinstall(8)
/etc/ system configuration files and scripts

defaults/ default system configuration files; see rc(8)
gnats/ gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
isdn/ isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8)
localtime local timezone information; see ctime(3)
mail/ Sendmail control files
mtree/ mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
namedb/ named configuration files; see named(8)
pam.d/ configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) library; see pam(8)
periodic/ scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via cron(8); see periodic(8)
ppp/ ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
ssl/ OpenSSL configuration files
/lib/ critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin

geom/ class-specific libraries for the geom(8) utility
critical system utilities needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin
/mnt/ empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point
/proc/ process file system; see procfs(5), mount_procfs(8)
/rescue/ statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see rescue(8)
/root/ root’s HOME directory
/sbin/ system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
/stand/ programs used in a standalone environment
/tmp/ temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
/usr/ contains the majority of user utilities and applications

bin/ common utilities, programming tools, and applications
compat/ files needed to support binary compatibility with other operating systems, such as Linux (created by sysinstall(8))
games/ useful and semi-frivolous programs
include/ standard C include files

altq/ C include files for alternate queueing
arpa/ C include files for Internet service protocols
bsnmp/ C include files for the SNMP daemon
c++/ C++ include files
cam/ C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer
scsi/ The SCSI device on top of CAM
dev/ C include files for programming various
.Fx devices
ic/ Various header files describing driver- and bus-independent hardware circuits
ofw/ Open Firmware support
pbio/ 8255 PPI cards; see pbio(4)
ppbus/ The parallel port bus; see ppbus(4)
usb/ The USB subsystem
utopia/ Physical chip driver for ATM interfaces; see utopia(4)
wi/ The wi(4) WaveLAN driver
fdescfs/ per-process file descriptors file system
fifofs/ -p1003.1 FIFOs file system
msdosfs/ MS-DOS file system
ntfs/ NTFS file system
nullfs/ loopback file system
nwfs/ NetWare file system
portalfs/ portal file system
procfs/ process file system
smbfs/ SMB/CIFS file system
udf/ UDF file system
umapfs/ alternate uid/gid mappings file system
unionfs union file system
geom/ GEOM framework
concat/ CONCAT GEOM class
gate/ GATE GEOM class
mirror/ MIRROR GEOM class
nop/ NOP GEOM class
raid3/ RAID3 GEOM class
stripe/ STRIPE GEOM class

isc/ ISC utility library libisc include files
cd9660/ iso9660 file system
libmilter/ C include files for libmilter, the sendmail(8) mail filter API
machine/ machine-specific C include files
net/ miscellaneous network C include files
netatalk/ Appletalk protocol
netatm/ ATM include files; see atm(8)
netinet/ C include files for Internet standard protocols; see inet(4)
netinet6/ C include files for Internet protocol version 6; see inet6(4)
netipx/ IPX/SPX protocol stacks
netkey/ kernel key-management service
netnatm/ NATM include files; see natm(4)
api/ include files for the signalling API
msg/ include files that describe signalling messages and declare associated functions
saal/ include files for the signalling AAL layer
sig/ include files for the UNI signalling protocol
netsmb/ SMB/CIFS requester
nfs/ C include files for NFS (Network File System)
objc/ Objective C include files
openssl/ OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
pccard/ PC-CARD controllers
posix4/ POSIX real-time extensions includes; see p1003_1b(9)
protocols/ C include files for Berkeley service protocols
readline/ get a line from a user, with editing; see readline(3)
rpc/ remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
rpcsvc/ definition of RPC service structures; see rpc(3)
security/ PAM; see pam(8)
sys/ system C include files (kernel data structures)
ufs/ C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)
ffs/ Fast file system
ufs/ UFS file system
vm/ virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

lib/ shared and archive ar 1 -type libraries
aout/ a.out archive libraries
shared libraries for compatibility
aout/ a.out backward compatibility libraries

miscellaneous utility data files
gcc/ gcc(1) configuration data
linker scripts; see ld(1)
lint/ various prebuilt lint libraries; see lint(1)

system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)
aout/ utilities to manipulate a.out executables
elf/ utilities to manipulate ELF executables
lpr/ utilities and filters for LP print system; see lpr(1)
the sendmail(8) binary; see mailwrapper(8)
restricted shell for sendmail(8); see smrsh(8)

local executables, libraries, etc. Also used as the default destination for the
.Fx ports framework. Within local/, the general layout sketched out by hier for /usr should be used. Exceptions are the man directory (directly under local/ rather than under local/share/), ports documentation (in share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
obj/ architecture-specific target tree produced by building the /usr/src tree
.Fx ports collection (optional).
sbin/ system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
architecture-independent files

calendar/ a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see calendar(1)
dict/ word lists; see look(1)


.Fx Ns -specific terms, proper names, and jargon
words common words
web2 words from Webster’s 2nd International
reference databases; see refer(1)

doc/ miscellaneous documentation; source for most of the printed BSD manuals (available from the USENIX association)
FAQ/ Frequently Asked Questions
IPv6/ implementation notes for IPv6
bind/ documents pertaining to BIND (the Berkeley Internet Name Domain)
es/ Spanish translations of documents in /usr/share/doc

.Fx Handbook
ja/ Japanese translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
HTML documents pertaining to ncurses; see ncurses(3)
ntp/ HTML documents pertaining to the Network Time Protocol
UNIX Papers
psd/ UNIX Programmer’s Supplementary Documents
ru/ Russian translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
smm/ UNIX System Manager’s Manual

.Fx tutorials
usd/ UNIX User’s Supplementary Documents
zh/ Chinese translations of documents in /usr/share/doc

various examples for users and programmers
ASCII text files used by various games
device description file for device name
info/ GNU Info hypertext system
isdn/ ISDN
localization files; see setlocale(3)
man/ manual pages
me/ macros for use with the me macro package; see me(7)
misc/ miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text files
pcvt fonts; see pcvt(4)
terminal characteristics database; see termcap(5)
mk/ templates for make; see make(1)
nls/ national language support files; see mklocale(1)
pcvt/ pcvt documentation and etc examples; see pcvt(4)
data files for security policies such as mac_lomac(4)
sendmail(8) configuration files
skel/ example . (dot) files for new accounts
snmp/ MIBs, example files and tree definitions for the SNMP daemon.
defs/ Tree definition files for use with gensnmptree(1)
mibs/ MIB files
files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
fonts/ console fonts; see vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
keymaps/ console keyboard maps; see kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
scrnmaps/ console screen maps
tabset/ tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in the termcap file; see termcap(5)
tmac/ text processing macros; see nroff(1) and troff(1)
vi/ localization support and utilities for vi(1)
zoneinfo/ timezone configuration information; see tzfile(5)
src/ BSD , third-party, and/or local source files

bin/ source code for files in /bin
contrib/ source code for contributed software
crypto/ source code for contributed cryptography software
etc/ source code for files in /etc
games/ source code for files in /usr/games
gnu/ Utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
include/ source code for files in /usr/include
kerberos5/ build infrastructure for kerberos version 5
lib/ source code for files in /usr/lib
libexec/ source code for files in /usr/libexec
release/ files required to produce a
.Fx release
sbin/ source code for files in /sbin
secure/ build directory for files in /usr/src/crypto
share/ source for files in /usr/share
sys/ kernel source code
tools/ tools used for maintenance and testing of
usr.bin/ source code for files in /usr/bin
usr.sbin/ source code for files in /usr/sbin

X11R6/ X11R6 distribution executables, libraries, etc (optional).
bin/ X11R6 binaries (servers, utilities, local packages/ports).
etc/ X11R6 configuration files and scripts.
include/ X11R6 include files.
lib/ X11R6 libraries.
man/ X11R6 manual pages.
share/ architecture-independent files.
/var/ multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

account/ system accounting files

acct execution accounting file; see acct(5)

at/ timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
jobs/ directory containing job files
spool/ directory containing output spool files

backups/ miscellaneous backup files
crash/ default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see crash(8) and savecore(8)
cron/ files used by cron; see cron(8)
tabs/ crontab files; see crontab(5)

db/ miscellaneous automatically generated system-specific database files
empty/ empty directory for use by programs that need a specifically empty directory. Used for instance by sshd(8) for privilege separation.
games/ miscellaneous game status and score files
heimdal/ kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
log/ miscellaneous system log files

wtmp login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

mail/ user mailbox files
msgs/ system messages database; see msgs(1)
temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death of an editor; see ex(1)
file system quota information files
run/ system information files describing various info about system since it was booted

writable by the "bind" user; see named(8)
ppp/ writable by the "network" group for command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
utmp database of current users; see utmp(5)

rwho/ rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and ruptime(1)
miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories

undelivered submission mail queue; see sendmail(8)
ftp/ commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root directory
undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
line printer spooling directories

tmp/ temporary files that are kept between system reboots
the directory where recovery files are stored
yp/ the NIS maps


This manual page documents the default
.Fx file system layout, but the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system administrator’s discretion. A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of this document.


apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1), fd(4), devfs(5), fsck(8)


Created by Blin Media, 2008-2013