| Provides an interactive user interface. || Using its command mode, the user can easily enter commands to establish the connection with the remote end, check the status of connection and close the connection. All functions can also be optionally password protected for security. |
| Supports both manual and automatic dialing. || Interactive mode has a "term" command which enables you to talk to the device directly. When you are connected to the remote peer and it starts to talk PPP, ppp detects it and switches to packet mode automatically. Once you have determined the proper sequence for connecting with the remote host, you can write a chat script to define the necessary dialing and login procedure for later convenience. |
| Supports on-demand dialup capability. || By using -auto mode, ppp will act as a daemon and wait for a packet to be sent over the PPP link. When this happens, the daemon automatically dials and establishes the connection. In almost the same manner -ddial mode (direct-dial mode) also automatically dials and establishes the connection. However, it differs in that it will dial the remote site any time it detects the link is down, even if there are no packets to be sent. This mode is useful for full-time connections where we worry less about line charges and more about being connected full time. A third -dedicated mode is also available. This mode is targeted at a dedicated link between two machines. ppp will never voluntarily quit from dedicated mode - you must send it the "quit all" command via its diagnostic socket. A SIGHUP will force an LCP renegotiation, and a SIGTERM will force it to exit. |
| Supports client callback. || ppp can use either the standard LCP callback protocol or the Microsoft CallBack Control Protocol (ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/developr/rfc/cbcp.txt). |
| Supports NAT or packet aliasing. || Packet aliasing (a.k.a. IP masquerading) allows computers on a private, unregistered network to access the Internet. The PPP host acts as a masquerading gateway. IP addresses as well as TCP and UDP port numbers are NATd for outgoing packets and de-NATd for returning packets. |
| Supports background PPP connections. || In background mode, if ppp successfully establishes the connection, it will become a daemon. Otherwise, it will exit with an error. This allows the setup of scripts that wish to execute certain commands only if the connection is successfully established. |
| Supports server-side PPP connections. || In direct mode, ppp acts as server which accepts incoming PPP connections on stdin/stdout. |
| "Supports PAP and CHAP (rfc 1994, 2433 and 2759) authentication. || With PAP or CHAP, it is possible to skip the Unix style login(1) procedure, and use the PPP protocol for authentication instead. If the peer requests Microsoft CHAP authentication and ppp is compiled with DES support, an appropriate MD4/DES response will be made. |
| Supports RADIUS (rfc 2138 & 2548) authentication. || An extension to PAP and CHAP, R emote A ccess D ial I n U ser S ervice allows authentication information to be stored in a central or distributed database along with various per-user framed connection characteristics. If libradius(3) is available at compile time, ppp will use it to make RADIUS requests when configured to do so. |
| Supports Proxy Arp. || ppp can be configured to make one or more proxy arp entries on behalf of the peer. This allows routing from the peer to the LAN without configuring each machine on that LAN. |
| Supports packet filtering. || User can define four kinds of filters: the in filter for incoming packets, the out filter for outgoing packets, the dial filter to define a dialing trigger packet and the alive filter for keeping a connection alive with the trigger packet. |
| Tunnel driver supports bpf. || The user can use tcpdump(1) to check the packet flow over the PPP link. |
| Supports PPP over TCP and PPP over UDP. || If a device name is specified as host: port |
.Xo [/ tcp|udp],
| || ppp will open a TCP or UDP connection for transporting data rather than using a conventional serial device. UDP connections force ppp into synchronous mode. |
| Supports PPP over ISDN. || If ppp is given a raw B-channel i4b device to open as a link, it is able to talk to the isdnd(8) daemon to establish an ISDN connection. |
| Supports PPP over Ethernet (rfc 2516). || If ppp is given a device specification of the format PPPoE: iface Xo [: provider] |
| || and if netgraph(4) is available, ppp will attempt talk PPP over Ethernet to provider using the iface network interface. |
On systems that do not support netgraph(4), an external program such as pppoed(8) may be used.
| "Supports IETF draft Predictor-1 (rfc 1978) and DEFLATE (rfc 1979) compression." || ppp supports not only VJ-compression but also Predictor-1 and DEFLATE compression. Normally, a modem has built-in compression (e.g., v42.bis) and the system may receive higher data rates from it as a result of such compression. While this is generally a good thing in most other situations, this higher speed data imposes a penalty on the system by increasing the number of serial interrupts the system has to process in talking to the modem and also increases latency. Unlike VJ-compression, Predictor-1 and DEFLATE compression pre-compresses all network traffic flowing through the link, thus reducing overheads to a minimum. |
| Supports Microsofts IPCP extensions (rfc 1877). || Name Server Addresses and NetBIOS Name Server Addresses can be negotiated with clients using the Microsoft PPP stack (i.e., Win95, WinNT) |
| Supports Multi-link PPP (rfc 1990) || It is possible to configure ppp to open more than one physical connection to the peer, combining the bandwidth of all links for better throughput. |
| Supports MPPE (draft-ietf-pppext-mppe) || MPPE is Microsoft Point to Point Encryption scheme. It is possible to configure ppp to participate in Microsofts Windows VPN. For now, ppp can only get encryption keys from CHAP 81 authentication. ppp must be compiled with DES for MPPE to operate. |
| Supports IPV6CP (rfc 2023). || An IPv6 connection can be made in addition to or instead of the normal IPv4 connection. |
The 'ON' part of your prompt should always be in upper case. If it is in lower case, it means that you must supply a password using the "passwd" command. This only ever happens if you connect to a running version of ppp and have not authenticated yourself using the correct password.
Normally, hardware flow control (CTS/RTS) is used. However, under certain circumstances (as may happen when you are connected directly to certain PPP-capable terminal servers), this may result in ppp hanging as soon as it tries to write data to your communications link as it is waiting for the CTS (clear to send) signal - which will never come. Thus, if you have a direct line and cannot seem to make a connection, try turning CTS/RTS off with "set ctsrts off". If you need to do this, check the "set accmap" description below too - you will probably need to "set accmap 000a0000".
If it does not, it is probable that the peer is waiting for your end to start negotiating. To force ppp to start sending PPP configuration packets to the peer, use the "~p" command to drop out of terminal mode and enter packet mode.
If you never even receive a login prompt, it is quite likely that the peer wants to use PAP or CHAP authentication instead of using Unix-style login/password authentication. To set things up properly, drop back to the prompt and set your authentication name and key, then reconnect:
ppp ON awfulhak> set authname myispusername
ppp ON awfulhak> set authkey myisppassword
ppp ON awfulhak> term
You are now connected! Note that 'PPP' in the prompt has changed to capital letters to indicate that you have a peer connection. If only some of the three Ps go uppercase, wait until either everything is uppercase or lowercase. If they revert to lowercase, it means that ppp could not successfully negotiate with the peer. A good first step for troubleshooting at this point would be to
ppp ON awfulhak> set log local phase lcp ipcp
and try again. Refer to the "set log" command description below for further details. If things fail at this point, it is quite important that you turn logging on and try again. It is also important that you note any prompt changes and report them to anyone trying to help you.
When the link is established, the show command can be used to see how things are going:
PPP ON awfulhak> show physical
* Modem related information is shown here *
PPP ON awfulhak> show ccp
* CCP (compression) related information is shown here *
PPP ON awfulhak> show lcp
* LCP (line control) related information is shown here *
PPP ON awfulhak> show ipcp
* IPCP (IP) related information is shown here *
PPP ON awfulhak> show ipv6cp
* IPV6CP (IPv6) related information is shown here *
PPP ON awfulhak> show link
* Link (high level) related information is shown here *
PPP ON awfulhak> show bundle
* Logical (high level) connection related information is shown here *
At this point, your machine has a host route to the peer. This means that you can only make a connection with the host on the other side of the link. If you want to add a default route entry (telling your machine to send all packets without another routing entry to the other side of the PPP link), enter the following command:
PPP ON awfulhak> add default HISADDR
The string 'HISADDR' represents the IP address of the connected peer. If the "add" command fails due to an existing route, you can overwrite the existing route using:
PPP ON awfulhak> add! default HISADDR
This command can also be executed before actually making the connection. If a new IP address is negotiated at connection time, ppp will update your default route accordingly.
You can now use your network applications (ping, telnet, ftp, etc.) in other windows or terminals on your machine. If you wish to reuse the current terminal, you can put ppp into the background using your standard shell suspend and background commands (usually "^Z" followed by "bg").
will attempt to connect 4 times for each outgoing packet that causes a dial attempt with a 3 second delay between each number and a 10 second delay after all numbers have been tried. If multiple phone numbers are specified, the total number of attempts is still 4 (it does not attempt each number 4 times).
The "set log" command allows you to set the logging output level. Multiple levels can be specified on a single command line. The default is equivalent to "set log Phase".
It is also possible to log directly to the screen. The syntax is the same except that the word "local" should immediately follow "set log". The default is "set log local" (i.e., only the un-maskable warning, error and alert output).
If The first argument to "set log [local]" begins with a '+' or a '-' character, the current log levels are not cleared, for example:
PPP ON awfulhak> set log phase
PPP ON awfulhak> show log
Log: Phase Warning Error Alert
Local: Warning Error Alert
PPP ON awfulhak> set log +tcp/ip -warning
PPP ON awfulhak> set log local +command
PPP ON awfulhak> show log
Log: Phase TCP/IP Warning Error Alert
Local: Command Warning Error Alert
Log messages of level Warning, Error and Alert are not controllable using "set log [local]".
If you wish to use more than one physical link to connect to a PPP peer, that peer must also understand the MULTI-LINK PPP protocol. Refer to RFC 1990 for specification details.
The peer is identified using a combination of his "endpoint discriminator" and his "authentication id". Either or both of these may be specified. It is recommended that at least one is specified, otherwise there is no way of ensuring that all links are actually connected to the same peer program, and some confusing lock-ups may result. Locally, these identification variables are specified using the "set enddisc" and "set authname" commands. The 'authname' (and 'authkey') must be agreed in advance with the peer.
Multi-link capabilities are enabled using the "set mrru" command (set maximum reconstructed receive unit). Once multi-link is enabled, ppp will attempt to negotiate a multi-link connection with the peer.
By default, only one 'link' is available (called 'deflink'). To create more links, the "clone" command is used. This command will clone existing links, where all characteristics are the same except:
- The new link has its own name as specified on the "clone" command line.
- The new link is an 'interactive' link. Its mode may subsequently be changed using the "set mode" command.
- The new link is in a 'closed' state.
A summary of all available links can be seen using the "show links" command.
Once a new link has been created, command usage varies. All link specific commands must be prefixed with the "link name" command, specifying on which link the command is to be applied. When only a single link is available, ppp is smart enough not to require the "link name" prefix.
Some commands can still be used without specifying a link - resulting in an operation at the 'bundle' level. For example, once two or more links are available, the command "show ccp" will show CCP configuration and statistics at the multi-link level, and "link deflink show ccp" will show the same information at the "deflink" link level.
Armed with this information, the following configuration might be used:
set timeout 0
set log phase chat
set device /dev/cuad0 /dev/cuad1 /dev/cuad2
set phone "123456789"
set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 5 \"\" ATZ \
OK-AT-OK \\dATDT\\T TIMEOUT 45 CONNECT"
set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
set authname ppp
set authkey ppppassword
set mrru 1500
clone 1,2,3 # Create 3 new links - duplicates of the default
link deflink remove # Delete the default link (called deflink)
Note how all cloning is done at the end of the configuration. Usually, the link will be configured first, then cloned. If you wish all links to be up all the time, you can add the following line to the end of your configuration.
link 1,2,3 set mode ddial
If you want the links to dial on demand, this command could be used:
link * set mode auto
Links may be tied to specific names by removing the "set device" line above, and specifying the following after the "clone" command:
link 1 set device /dev/cuad0
link 2 set device /dev/cuad1
link 3 set device /dev/cuad2
Use the "help" command to see which commands require context (using the "link" command), which have optional context and which should not have any context.
When ppp has negotiated MULTI-LINK mode with the peer, it creates a local domain socket in the /var/run directory. This socket is used to pass link information (including the actual link file descriptor) between different ppp invocations. This facilitates s ability to be run from a getty(8) or directly from /etc/gettydefs (using the 'pp=' capability), without needing to have initial control of the serial line. Once ppp negotiates multi-link mode, it will pass its open link to any already running process. If there is no already running process, ppp will act as the master, creating the socket and listening for new connections.
PPP COMMAND LIST
This section lists the available commands and their effect. They are usable either from an interactive ppp session, from a configuration file or from a pppctl(8) or telnet(1) session.
| accept|deny|enable|disable option.... |
| || These directives tell ppp how to negotiate the initial connection with the peer. Each "option" has a default of either accept or deny and enable or disable. "Accept" means that the option will be ACKd if the peer asks for it. "Deny" means that the option will be NAKd if the peer asks for it. "Enable" means that the option will be requested by us. "Disable" means that the option will not be requested by us. |
"Option" may be one of the following:
| acfcomp |
| || Default: Enabled and Accepted. ACFComp stands for Address and Control Field Compression. Non LCP packets will usually have an address field of 0xff (the All-Stations address) and a control field of 0x03 (the Unnumbered Information command). If this option is negotiated, these two bytes are simply not sent, thus minimising traffic. |
See rfc1662 for details.
| chap  |
| || Default: Disabled and Accepted. CHAP stands for Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Only one of CHAP and PAP (below) may be negotiated. With CHAP, the authenticator sends a "challenge" message to its peer. The peer uses a one-way hash function to encrypt the challenge and sends the result back. The authenticator does the same, and compares the results. The advantage of this mechanism is that no passwords are sent across the connection. A challenge is made when the connection is first made. Subsequent challenges may occur. If you want to have your peer authenticate itself, you must "enable chap". in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf, and have an entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for the peer. |
When using CHAP as the client, you need only specify "AuthName" and "AuthKey" in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf. CHAP is accepted by default. Some PPP implementations use "MS-CHAP" rather than MD5 when encrypting the challenge. MS-CHAP is a combination of MD4 and DES. If ppp was built on a machine with DES libraries available, it will respond to MS-CHAP authentication requests, but will never request them.
| deflate |
| || Default: Enabled and Accepted. This option decides if deflate compression will be used by the Compression Control Protocol (CCP). This is the same algorithm as used by the gzip(1) program. Note: There is a problem negotiating deflate capabilities with pppd(8) - a PPP implementation available under many operating systems. pppd (version 2.3.1) incorrectly attempts to negotiate deflate compression using type 24 as the CCP configuration type rather than type 26 as specified in rfc1979. Type 24 is actually specified as "PPP Magna-link Variable Resource Compression" in rfc1975 ! ppp is capable of negotiating with pppd, but only if "deflate24" is enable d and accept ed. |
| deflate24 |
| || Default: Disabled and Denied. This is a variance of the deflate option, allowing negotiation with the pppd(8) program. Refer to the deflate section above for details. It is disabled by default as it violates rfc1975. |
| dns || Default: Disabled and Denied. This option allows DNS negotiation. |
If "enable d," ppp will request that the peer confirms the entries in /etc/resolv.conf. If the peer NAKs our request (suggesting new IP numbers), /etc/resolv.conf is updated and another request is sent to confirm the new entries.
If "accept ed," ppp will answer any DNS queries requested by the peer rather than rejecting them. The answer is taken from /etc/resolv.conf unless the "set dns" command is used as an override.
| enddisc |
| || Default: Enabled and Accepted. This option allows control over whether we negotiate an endpoint discriminator. We only send our discriminator if "set enddisc" is used and enddisc is enabled. We reject the peers discriminator if enddisc is denied. |
| LANMan|chap80lm |
| || Default: Disabled and Accepted. The use of this authentication protocol is discouraged as it partially violates the authentication protocol by implementing two different mechanisms (LANMan & NT) under the guise of a single CHAP type (0x80). "LANMan" uses a simple DES encryption mechanism and is the least secure of the CHAP alternatives (although is still more secure than PAP). |
Refer to the "MSChap" description below for more details.
| lqr || Default: Disabled and Accepted. This option decides if Link Quality Requests will be sent or accepted. LQR is a protocol that allows ppp to determine that the link is down without relying on the modems carrier detect. When LQR is enabled, ppp sends the QUALPROTO option (see "set lqrperiod" below) as part of the LCP request. If the peer agrees, both sides will exchange LQR packets at the agreed frequency, allowing detailed link quality monitoring by enabling LQM logging. If the peer does not agree, and if the "echo" option is enabled, ppp will send LCP ECHO requests instead. These packets pass no information of interest, but they MUST be replied to by the peer. |
Whether using LQR or LCP ECHO, ppp will abruptly drop the connection if 5 unacknowledged packets have been sent rather than sending a 6th. A message is logged at the PHASE level, and any appropriate "reconnect" values are honoured as if the peer were responsible for dropping the connection.
Refer to the "enable echo" command description for differences in behaviour prior to ppp version 3.4.2.
| mppe || Default: Enabled and Accepted. This is Microsoft Point to Point Encryption scheme. MPPE key size can be 40-, 56- and 128-bits. Refer to "set mppe" command. |
| MSChapV2|chap81 |
| || Default: Disabled and Accepted. It is very similar to standard CHAP (type 0x05) except that it issues challenges of a fixed 16 bytes in length and uses a combination of MD4, SHA-1 and DES to encrypt the challenge rather than using the standard MD5 mechanism. |
| MSChap|chap80nt |
| || Default: Disabled and Accepted. The use of this authentication protocol is discouraged as it partially violates the authentication protocol by implementing two different mechanisms (LANMan & NT) under the guise of a single CHAP type (0x80). It is very similar to standard CHAP (type 0x05) except that it issues challenges of a fixed 8 bytes in length and uses a combination of MD4 and DES to encrypt the challenge rather than using the standard MD5 mechanism. CHAP type 0x80 for LANMan is also supported - see "enable LANMan" for details. |
Because both "LANMan" and "NT" use CHAP type 0x80, when acting as authenticator with both "enable d", ppp will rechallenge the peer up to three times if it responds using the wrong one of the two protocols. This gives the peer a chance to attempt using both protocols.
Conversely, when ppp acts as the authenticatee with both protocols "accept ed", the protocols are used alternately in response to challenges.
Note: If only LANMan is enabled, pppd(8) (version 2.3.5) misbehaves when acting as authenticatee. It provides both the NT and the LANMan answers, but also suggests that only the NT answer should be used.
| pap || Default: Disabled and Accepted. PAP stands for Password Authentication Protocol. Only one of PAP and CHAP (above) may be negotiated. With PAP, the ID and Password are sent repeatedly to the peer until authentication is acknowledged or the connection is terminated. This is a rather poor security mechanism. It is only performed when the connection is first established. If you want to have your peer authenticate itself, you must "enable pap". in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf, and have an entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for the peer (although see the "passwdauth" and "set radius" options below). |
When using PAP as the client, you need only specify "AuthName" and "AuthKey" in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf. PAP is accepted by default.
| pred1 || Default: Enabled and Accepted. This option decides if Predictor 1 compression will be used by the Compression Control Protocol (CCP). |
| protocomp |
| || Default: Enabled and Accepted. This option is used to negotiate PFC (Protocol Field Compression), a mechanism where the protocol field number is reduced to one octet rather than two. |
| shortseq |
| || Default: Enabled and Accepted. This option determines if ppp will request and accept requests for short (12 bit) sequence numbers when negotiating multi-link mode. This is only applicable if our MRRU is set (thus enabling multi-link). |
| vjcomp |
| || Default: Enabled and Accepted. This option determines if Van Jacobson header compression will be used. |
The following options are not actually negotiated with the peer. Therefore, accepting or denying them makes no sense.
| echo || Default: Disabled. When this option is enabled, ppp will send LCP ECHO requests to the peer at the frequency defined by "echoperiod". Note, LQR requests will supersede LCP ECHO requests if enabled and negotiated. See "set lqrperiod" below for details. |
Prior to ppp version 3.4.2, "echo" was considered enabled if lqr was enabled and negotiated, otherwise it was considered disabled. For the same behaviour, it is now necessary to "enable lqr echo" rather than just "enable lqr".
| filter-decapsulation |
| || Default: Disabled. When this option is enabled, ppp will examine UDP frames to see if they actually contain a PPP frame as their payload. If this is the case, all filters will operate on the payload rather than the actual packet. |
This is useful if you want to send PPPoUDP traffic over a PPP link, but want that link to do smart things with the real data rather than the UDP wrapper.
The UDP frame payload must not be compressed in any way, otherwise ppp will not be able to interpret it. It is therefore recommended that you disable vj pred1 deflate and deny vj pred1 deflate in the configuration for the ppp invocation with the udp link.
| force-scripts |
| || Default: Disabled. Forces execution of the configured chat scripts in direct and dedicated modes. |
| idcheck |
| || Default: Enabled. When ppp exchanges low-level LCP, CCP and IPCP configuration traffic, the Identifier field of any replies is expected to be the same as that of the request. By default, ppp drops any reply packets that do not contain the expected identifier field, reporting the fact at the respective log level. If idcheck is disabled, ppp will ignore the identifier field. |
| iface-alias |
| || Default: Enabled if -nat is specified. This option simply tells ppp to add new interface addresses to the interface rather than replacing them. The option can only be enabled if network address translation is enabled ("natenable yes"). |
With this option enabled, ppp will pass traffic for old interface addresses through the NAT engine (see libalias(3)), resulting in the ability (in -auto mode) to properly connect the process that caused the PPP link to come up in the first place.
Disabling NAT with "nat enable no" will also disable 'iface-alias'.
| ipcp || Default: Enabled. This option allows ppp to attempt to negotiate IP control protocol capabilities and if successful to exchange IP datagrams with the peer. |
| ipv6cp |
| || Default: Enabled. This option allows ppp to attempt to negotiate IPv6 control protocol capabilities and if successful to exchange IPv6 datagrams with the peer. |
| keep-session |
| || Default: Disabled. When ppp runs as a Multi-link server, a different ppp instance initially receives each connection. After determining that the link belongs to an already existing bundle (controlled by another ppp invocation), ppp will transfer the link to that process. |
If the link is a tty device or if this option is enabled, ppp will not exit, but will change its process name to "session owner" and wait for the controlling ppp to finish with the link and deliver a signal back to the idle process. This prevents the confusion that results from s parent considering the link resource available again.
For tty devices that have entries in /etc/ttys, this is necessary to prevent another getty(8) from being started, and for program links such as sshd(8), it prevents sshd(8) from exiting due to the death of its child. As ppp cannot determine its parents requirements (except for the tty case), this option must be enabled manually depending on the circumstances.
| loopback |
| || Default: Enabled. When loopback is enabled, ppp will automatically loop back packets being sent out with a destination address equal to that of the PPP interface. If disabled, ppp will send the packet, probably resulting in an ICMP redirect from the other end. It is convenient to have this option enabled when the interface is also the default route as it avoids the necessity of a loopback route. |
| NAS-IP-Address |
| || Default: Enabled. This option controls whether ppp sends the "NAS-IP-Address" attribute to the RADIUS server when RADIUS is in use (see"set radius"). |
Note, at least one of "NAS-IP-Address" and "NAS-Identifier" must be enabled.
Versions of ppp prior to version 3.4.1 did not send the "NAS-IP-Address" atribute as it was reported to break the Radiator RADIUS server. As the latest rfc (2865) no longer hints that only one of "NAS-IP-Address" and "NAS-Identifier" should be sent (as rfc 2138 did), ppp now sends both and leaves it up to the administrator that chooses to use bad RADIUS implementations to "disable NAS-IP-Address".
| NAS-Identifier |
| || Default: Enabled. This option controls whether ppp sends the "NAS-Identifier" attribute to the RADIUS server when RADIUS is in use (see"set radius"). |
Note, at least one of "NAS-IP-Address" and "NAS-Identifier" must be enabled.
| passwdauth |
| || Default: Disabled. Enabling this option will tell the PAP authentication code to use the password database (see passwd(5)) to authenticate the caller if they cannot be found in the /etc/ppp/ppp.secret file. /etc/ppp/ppp.secret is always checked first. If you wish to use passwords from passwd(5), but also to specify an IP number or label for a given client, use "*" as the client password in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret. |
| proxy || Default: Disabled. Enabling this option will tell ppp to proxy ARP for the peer. This means that ppp will make an entry in the ARP table using HISADDR and the MAC address of the local network in which HISADDR appears. This allows other machines connecteed to the LAN to talk to the peer as if the peer itself was connected to the LAN. The proxy entry cannot be made unless HISADDR is an address from a LAN. |
| proxyall |
| || Default: Disabled. Enabling this will tell ppp to add proxy arp entries for every IP address in all class C or smaller subnets routed via the tun interface. |
Proxy arp entries are only made for sticky routes that are added using the "add" command. No proxy arp entries are made for the interface address itself (as created by the "set ifaddr" command).
| sroutes |
| || Default: Enabled. When the "add" command is used with the HISADDR, MYADDR, HISADDR6 or MYADDR6 values, entries are stored in the 'sticky route' list. Each time these variables change, this list is re-applied to the routing table. |
Disabling this option will prevent the re-application of sticky routes, although the 'stick route' list will still be maintained.
| [tcp Xo] |
| || mssfixup |
| || Default: Enabled. This option tells ppp to adjust TCP SYN packets so that the maximum receive segment size is not greater than the amount allowed by the interface MTU. |
| throughput |
| || Default: Enabled. This option tells ppp to gather throughput statistics. Input and output is sampled over a rolling 5 second window, and current, best and total figures are retained. This data is output when the relevant PPP layer shuts down, and is also available using the "show" command. Throughput statistics are available at the "IPCP" and "physical" levels. |
| utmp || Default: Enabled. Normally, when a user is authenticated using PAP or CHAP, and when ppp is running in -direct mode, an entry is made in the utmp and wtmp files for that user. Disabling this option will tell ppp not to make any utmp or wtmp entries. This is usually only necessary if you require the user to both login and authenticate themselves. |
| nat command [args] |
| || This command allows the control of the network address translation (also known as masquerading or IP aliasing) facilities that are built into ppp. NAT is done on the external interface only, and is unlikely to make sense if used with the -direct flag. |
If nat is enabled on your system (it may be omitted at compile time), the following commands are possible:
| nat enable yes|no |
| || This command either switches network address translation on or turns it off. The -nat command line flag is synonymous with "nat enable yes". |
| nat addr [addr_local addr_alias] |
| || This command allows data for addr_alias to be redirected to addr_local. It is useful if you own a small number of real IP numbers that you wish to map to specific machines behind your gateway. |
| nat deny_incoming yes|no |
| || If set to yes, this command will refuse all incoming packets where an aliasing link does not already exist. Refer to the CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND section of libalias(3) for a description of what an "aliasing link" is. |
It should be noted under what circumstances an aliasing link is created by libalias(3). It may be necessary to further protect your network from outside connections using the "set filter" or "nat target" commands.
| nat help|? |
| || This command gives a summary of available nat commands. |
| nat log yes|no |
| || This option causes various NAT statistics and information to be logged to the file /var/log/alias.log. |
| nat port proto targetIP Xo |
| || : targetPort [ - targetPort aliasPort] [ - aliasPort [remoteIP:] remotePort [ - remotePort ] ] |
| || This command causes incoming proto connections to aliasPort to be redirected to targetPort on targetIP. proto is either "tcp" or "udp". |
A range of port numbers may be specified as shown above. The ranges must be of the same size.
If remoteIP is specified, only data coming from that IP number is redirected. remotePort must either be "0" (indicating any source port) or a range of ports the same size as the other ranges.
This option is useful if you wish to run things like Internet phone on machines behind your gateway, but is limited in that connections to only one interior machine per source machine and target port are possible.
| nat proto proto localIP[ |
| || publicIP [remoteIP] ] This command tells ppp to redirect packets of protocol type proto (see protocols(5)) to the internal address localIP. |
If publicIP is specified, only packets destined for that address are matched, otherwise the default alias address is used.
If remoteIP is specified, only packets matching that source address are matched,
This command is useful for redirecting tunnel endpoints to an internal machine, for example:
nat proto ipencap 10.0.0.1
| "nat proxy cmd" arg ... |
| || This command tells ppp to proxy certain connections, redirecting them to a given server. Refer to the description of PacketAliasProxyRule in libalias(3) for details of the available commands. |
| nat punch_fw [base count] |
| || This command tells ppp to punch holes in the firewall for FTP or IRC DCC connections. This is done dynamically by installing termporary firewall rules which allow a particular connection (and only that connection) to go through the firewall. The rules are removed once the corresponding connection terminates. |
A maximum of count rules starting from rule number base will be used for punching firewall holes. The range will be cleared when the "nat punch_fw" command is run.
If no arguments are given, firewall punching is disabled.
| nat skinny_port [port] |
| || This command tells ppp which TCP port is used by the Skinny Station protocol. Skinny is used by Cisco IP phones to communicate with Cisco Call Managers to setup voice over IP calls. The typical port used by Skinny is 2000. |
If no argument is given, skinny aliasing is disabled.
| nat same_ports yes|no |
| || When enabled, this command will tell the network address translation engine to attempt to avoid changing the port number on outgoing packets. This is useful if you want to support protocols such as RPC and LPD which require connections to come from a well known port. |
| nat target [address] |
| || Set the given target address or clear it if no address is given. The target address is used by libalias to specify how to NAT incoming packets by default. If a target address is not set or if "default" is given, packets are not altered and are allowed to route to the internal network. |
The target address may be set to "MYADDR", in which case libalias will redirect all packets to the interface address.
| nat use_sockets yes|no |
| || When enabled, this option tells the network address translation engine to create a socket so that it can guarantee a correct incoming ftp data or IRC connection. |
| nat unregistered_only yes|no |
| || Only alter outgoing packets with an unregistered source address. According to RFC 1918, unregistered source addresses are 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 and 192.168.0.0/16. |
| AUTHNAME || This is replaced with the local authname value. See the "set authname" command below. |
| COMPILATIONDATE |
| || This is replaced with the date on which ppp was compiled. |
| DNS0 & DNS1 || These are replaced with the primary and secondary nameserver IP numbers. If nameservers are negotiated by IPCP, the values of these macros will change. |
| ENDDISC || This is replaced with the local endpoint discriminator value. See the "set enddisc" command below. |
| HISADDR || This is replaced with the peers IP number. |
| HISADDR6 || This is replaced with the peers IPv6 number. |
| INTERFACE || This is replaced with the name of the interface that is in use. |
| IPOCTETSIN || This is replaced with the number of IP bytes received since the connection was established. |
| IPOCTETSOUT || This is replaced with the number of IP bytes sent since the connection was established. |
| IPPACKETSIN || This is replaced with the number of IP packets received since the connection was established. |
| IPPACKETSOUT || This is replaced with the number of IP packets sent since the connection was established. |
| IPV6OCTETSIN || This is replaced with the number of IPv6 bytes received since the connection was established. |
| IPV6OCTETSOUT || This is replaced with the number of IPv6 bytes sent since the connection was established. |
| IPV6PACKETSIN || This is replaced with the number of IPv6 packets received since the connection was established. |
| IPV6PACKETSOUT || This is replaced with the number of IPv6 packets sent since the connection was established. |
| LABEL || This is replaced with the last label name used. A label may be specified on the ppp command line, via the "load" or "dial" commands and in the ppp.secret file. |
| MYADDR || This is replaced with the IP number assigned to the local interface. |
| MYADDR6 || This is replaced with the IPv6 number assigned to the local interface. |
| OCTETSIN || This is replaced with the number of bytes received since the connection was established. |
| OCTETSOUT || This is replaced with the number of bytes sent since the connection was established. |
| PACKETSIN || This is replaced with the number of packets received since the connection was established. |
| PACKETSOUT || This is replaced with the number of packets sent since the connection was established. |
| PEER_ENDDISC || This is replaced with the value of the peers endpoint discriminator. |
| PROCESSID || This is replaced with the current process id. |
| SOCKNAME || This is replaced with the name of the diagnostic socket. |
| UPTIME || This is replaced with the bundle uptime in HH:MM:SS format. |
| USER || This is replaced with the username that has been authenticated with PAP or CHAP. Normally, this variable is assigned only in -direct mode. This value is available irrespective of whether utmp logging is enabled. |
| VERSION || This is replaced with the current version number of ppp. |
These substitutions are also done by the "set proctitle", "ident" and "log" commands.
| clear physical|ipcp|ipv6 [current|overall|peak...] |
| || Clear the specified throughput values at either the "physical", "ipcp" or "ipv6cp" level. If "physical" is specified, context must be given (see the "link" command below). If no second argument is given, all values are cleared. |
| clone name Xo || [, name] ... |
| || Clone the specified link, creating one or more new links according to the name argument(s). This command must be used from the "link" command below unless you have only got a single link (in which case that link becomes the default). Links may be removed using the "remove" command below. |
The default link name is "deflink".
| close [lcp|ccp [!]] |
| || If no arguments are given, the relevant protocol layers will be brought down and the link will be closed. If "lcp" is specified, the LCP layer is brought down, but ppp will not bring the link offline. It is subsequently possible to use "term" (see below) to talk to the peer machine if, for example, something like "slirp" is being used. If "ccp" is specified, only the relevant compression layer is closed. If the "!" is used, the compression layer will remain in the closed state, otherwise it will re-enter the STOPPED state, waiting for the peer to initiate further CCP negotiation. In any event, this command does not disconnect the user from ppp or exit ppp. See the "quit" command below. |
| delete Xo || [!] dest |
| || This command deletes the route with the given dest IP address. If dest is specified as 'ALL', all non-direct entries in the routing table for the current interface, and all 'sticky route' entries are deleted. If dest is specified as 'default', the default route is deleted. |
If the delete! command is used (note the trailing "!"), ppp will not complain if the route does not already exist.
| dial|call [label Xo] |
| || ... |
| || This command is the equivalent of "load label" followed by "open", and is provided for backwards compatibility. |
| down [lcp|ccp] || Bring the relevant layer down ungracefully, as if the underlying layer had become unavailable. It is not considered polite to use this command on a Finite State Machine that is in the OPEN state. If no arguments are supplied, the entire link is closed (or if no context is given, all links are terminated). If 'lcp' is specified, the LCP layer is terminated but the device is not brought offline and the link is not closed. If 'ccp' is specified, only the relevant compression layer(s) are terminated. |
| help|? [command] |
| || Show a list of available commands. If command is specified, show the usage string for that command. |
| ident [text ...] || Identify the link to the peer using text. If text is empty, link identification is disabled. It is possible to use any of the words described for the bg command above. Refer to the sendident command for details of when ppp identifies itself to the peer. |
| iface command [args] |
| || This command is used to control the interface used by ppp. Command may be one of the following: |
| [data Xo] |
| || link name [,name] ... command [args] |
| || This command may prefix any other command if the user wishes to specify which link the command should affect. This is only applicable after multiple links have been created in Multi-link mode using the "clone" command. |
Name specifies the name of an existing link. If name is a comma separated list, command is executed on each link. If name is "*", command is executed on all links.
| load [label Xo] |
| || ... |
| || Load the given label (s) from the ppp.conf file. If label is not given, the default label is used. |
Unless the label section uses the "set mode", "open" or "dial" commands, ppp will not attempt to make an immediate connection.
| log word ... |
| || Send the given word(s) to the log file with the prefix "LOG:". Word substitutions are done as explained under the "!bg" command above. |
| open [lcp|ccp|ipcp] |
| || This is the opposite of the "close" command. All closed links are immediately brought up apart from second and subsequent demand-dial links - these will come up based on the "set autoload" command that has been used. |
If the "lcp" argument is used while the LCP layer is already open, LCP will be renegotiated. This allows various LCP options to be changed, after which "open lcp" can be used to put them into effect. After renegotiating LCP, any agreed authentication will also take place.
If the "ccp" argument is used, the relevant compression layer is opened. Again, if it is already open, it will be renegotiated.
If the "ipcp" argument is used, the link will be brought up as normal, but if IPCP is already open, it will be renegotiated and the network interface will be reconfigured.
It is probably not good practice to re-open the PPP state machines like this as it is possible that the peer will not behave correctly. It is however useful as a way of forcing the CCP or VJ dictionaries to be reset.
| passwd pass |
| || Specify the password required for access to the full ppp command set. This password is required when connecting to the diagnostic port (see the "set server" command). Pass is specified on the "set server" command line. The value of pass is not logged when command logging is active, instead, the literal string '********' is logged. |
| quit|bye [all] |
| || If "quit" is executed from the controlling connection or from a command file, ppp will exit after closing all connections. Otherwise, if the user is connected to a diagnostic socket, the connection is simply dropped. |
If the all argument is given, ppp will exit despite the source of the command after closing all existing connections.
| remove|rm |
| || This command removes the given link. It is only really useful in multi-link mode. A link must be in the CLOSED state before it is removed. |
| rename|mv name |
| || This command renames the given link to name. It will fail if name is already used by another link. |
The default link name is 'deflink'. Renaming it to 'modem', 'cuad0' or 'USR' may make the log file more readable.
| resolv command |
| || This command controls s manipulation of the resolv.conf(5) file. When ppp starts up, it loads the contents of this file into memory and retains this image for future use. command is one of the following: |
| set accmap hex-value |
| || ACCMap stands for Asynchronous Control Character Map. This is always negotiated with the peer, and defaults to a value of 00000000 in hex. This protocol is required to defeat hardware that depends on passing certain characters from end to end (such as XON/XOFF etc). |
For the XON/XOFF scenario, use "set accmap 000a0000".
| set [auth Xo] |
| || key value |
| || This sets the authentication key (or password) used in client mode PAP or CHAP negotiation to the given value. It also specifies the password to be used in the dial or login scripts in place of the '\P' sequence, preventing the actual password from being logged. If command or chat logging is in effect, value is logged as '********' for security reasons. |
If the first character of value is an exclamation mark ("!"), ppp treats the remainder of the string as a program that must be executed to determine the "authname" and "authkey" values.
If the "!" is doubled up (to "!!"), it is treated as a single literal "!", otherwise, ignoring the "!", value is parsed as a program to execute in the same was as the "!bg" command above, substituting special names in the same manner. Once executed, ppp will feed the program three lines of input, each terminated by a newline character:
- The host name as sent in the CHAP challenge.
- The challenge string as sent in the CHAP challenge.
- The locally defined "authname".
Two lines of output are expected:
- The "authname" to be sent with the CHAP response.
- The "authkey", which is encrypted with the challenge and request id, the answer being sent in the CHAP response packet.
When configuring ppp in this manner, it is expected that the host challenge is a series of ASCII digits or characters. An encryption device or Secure ID card is usually required to calculate the secret appropriate for the given challenge.
| set authname id |
| || This sets the authentication id used in client mode PAP or CHAP negotiation. |
If used in -direct mode with CHAP enabled, id is used in the initial authentication challenge and should normally be set to the local machine name.
| set autoload Xo |
| || min-percent max-percent period |
| || These settings apply only in multi-link mode and default to zero, zero and five respectively. When more than one demand-dial (also known as -auto ) mode link is available, only the first link is made active when ppp first reads data from the tun device. The next demand-dial link will be opened only when the current bundle throughput is at least max-percent percent of the total bundle bandwidth for period seconds. When the current bundle throughput decreases to min-percent percent or less of the total bundle bandwidth for period seconds, a demand-dial link will be brought down as long as it is not the last active link. |
Bundle throughput is measured as the maximum of inbound and outbound traffic.
The default values cause demand-dial links to simply come up one at a time.
Certain devices cannot determine their physical bandwidth, so it is sometimes necessary to use the "set bandwidth" command (described below) to make "set autoload" work correctly.
| set bandwidth value |
| || This command sets the connection bandwidth in bits per second. value must be greater than zero. It is currently only used by the "set autoload" command above. |
| set callback option ... |
| || If no arguments are given, callback is disabled, otherwise, ppp will request (or in -direct mode, will accept) one of the given option s. In client mode, if an option is NAKd ppp will request a different option, until no options remain at which point ppp will terminate negotiations (unless "none" is one of the specified option). In server mode, ppp will accept any of the given protocols - but the client must request one of them. If you wish callback to be optional, you must include none as an option. |
The option s are as follows (in this order of preference):
| auth || The callee is expected to decide the callback number based on authentication. If ppp is the callee, the number should be specified as the fifth field of the peers entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret. |
| cbcp || Microsofts callback control protocol is used. See "set cbcp" below. |
If you wish to negotiate cbcp in client mode but also wish to allow the server to request no callback at CBCP negotiation time, you must specify both cbcp and none as callback options.
| E.164 *| Xo |
| || number [,number] ... |
| || The caller specifies the number. If ppp is the callee, number should be either a comma separated list of allowable numbers or a "*", meaning any number is permitted. If ppp is the caller, only a single number should be specified. |
Note, this option is very unsafe when used with a "*" as a malicious caller can tell ppp to call any (possibly international) number without first authenticating themselves.
| none || If the peer does not wish to do callback at all, ppp will accept the fact and continue without callback rather than terminating the connection. This is required (in addition to one or more other callback options) if you wish callback to be optional. |
All other device types do not support carrier. Setting a carrier value will result in a warning when the device is opened.
Some modems take more than one second after connecting to assert the carrier signal. If this delay is not increased, this will result in s inability to detect when the link is dropped, as ppp assumes that the device is not asserting carrier.
The "set cd" command overrides the default carrier behaviour. seconds specifies the maximum number of seconds that ppp should wait after the dial script has finished before deciding if carrier is available or not.
If no arguments are given, carrier settings will go back to their default values.
| set choked [timeout] |
| || This sets the number of seconds that ppp will keep a choked output queue before dropping all pending output packets. If timeout is less than or equal to zero or if timeout is not specified, it is set to the default value of 120 seconds. |
A choked output queue occurs when ppp has read a certain number of packets from the local network for transmission, but cannot send the data due to link failure (the peer is busy etc.). ppp will not read packets indefinitely. Instead, it reads up to 30 packets (or 30 + nlinks * 2 packets in multi-link mode), then stops reading the network interface until either timeout seconds have passed or at least one packet has been sent.
If timeout seconds pass, all pending output packets are dropped.
| set ctsrts|crtscts on|off |
| || This sets hardware flow control. Hardware flow control is on by default. |
| set deflate out-winsize [in-winsize] |
| || This sets the DEFLATE algorithms default outgoing and incoming window sizes. Both out-winsize and in-winsize must be values between 8 and 15. If in-winsize is specified, ppp will insist that this window size is used and will not accept any other values from the peer. |
| set dns [primary [secondary]] |
| || This command specifies DNS overrides for the "accept dns" command. Refer to the "accept" command description above for details. This command does not affect the IP numbers requested using "enable dns". |
| set device|line Xo |
| || value ... |
| || This sets the device(s) to which ppp will talk to the given "value". |
All ISDN and serial device names are expected to begin with /dev/. ISDN devices are usually called i4brbchX and serial devices are usually called cuaXX.
If "value" does not begin with /dev/, it must either begin with an exclamation mark ("!"), be of the format PPPoE: iface Xo [: provider]
| || (on netgraph(4) enabled systems), or be of the format |
.Sm off host: port [/tcp|udp].
If it begins with an exclamation mark, the rest of the device name is treated as a program name, and that program is executed when the device is opened. Standard input, output and error are fed back to ppp and are read and written as if they were a regular device.
If a PPPoE: iface Xo [: provider]
| || specification is given, ppp will attempt to create a PPP over Ethernet connection using the given iface interface by using netgraph(4). If netgraph(4) is not available, ppp will attempt to load it using kldload(2). If this fails, an external program must be used such as the pppoed(8) program available under |
.Ox . The given provider is passed as the service name in the PPPoE Discovery Initiation (PADI) packet. If no provider is given, an empty value will be used.
When a PPPoE connection is established, ppp will place the name of the Access Concentrator in the environment variable ACNAME.
Refer to netgraph(4) and ng_pppoe(4) for further details.
If a host: port[ /tcp|udp ] specification is given, ppp will attempt to connect to the given host on the given port. If a "/tcp" or "/udp" suffix is not provided, the default is "/tcp". Refer to the section on PPP OVER TCP and UDP above for further details.
If multiple "values" are specified, ppp will attempt to open each one in turn until it succeeds or runs out of devices.
| set dial chat-script |
| || This specifies the chat script that will be used to dial the other side. See also the "set login" command below. Refer to chat(8) and to the example configuration files for details of the chat script format. It is possible to specify some special 'values' in your chat script as follows: |
| \c || When used as the last character in a 'send' string, this indicates that a newline should not be appended. |
| \d || When the chat script encounters this sequence, it delays two seconds. |
| \p || When the chat script encounters this sequence, it delays for one quarter of a second. |
| \n || This is replaced with a newline character. |
| \r || This is replaced with a carriage return character. |
| \s || This is replaced with a space character. |
| \t || This is replaced with a tab character. |
| \T || This is replaced by the current phone number (see "set phone" below). |
| \P || This is replaced by the current authkey value (see "set authkey" above). |
| \U || This is replaced by the current authname value (see "set authname" above). |
Note that two parsers will examine these escape sequences, so in order to have the 'chat parser' see the escape character, it is necessary to escape it from the 'command parser'. This means that in practice you should use two escapes, for example:
set dial "... ATDT\\T CONNECT"
It is also possible to execute external commands from the chat script. To do this, the first character of the expect or send string is an exclamation mark ("!"). If a literal exclamation mark is required, double it up to "!!" and it will be treated as a single literal "!". When the command is executed, standard input and standard output are directed to the open device (see the "set device" command), and standard error is read by ppp and substituted as the expect or send string. If ppp is running in interactive mode, file descriptor 3 is attached to /dev/tty.
would result in the following chat sequence (output using the 'set log local chat' command before dialing):
Dial attempt 1 of 1
Chat: Expecting: login:--login:
Chat: Wait for (5): login:
Chat: Sending: ppp
Chat: Expecting: word:
Chat: Wait for (5): word:
Chat: Sending: ppp
Chat: Expecting: !sh \-c "echo \-n label: >&2"
Chat: Exec: sh -c "echo -n label: >&2"
Chat: Wait for (5): !sh \-c "echo \-n label: >&2" --> label:
Chat: Exec: /bin/echo in
Chat: Expecting: HELLO
Chat: Wait for (5): HELLO
Note (again) the use of the escape character, allowing many levels of nesting. Here, there are four parsers at work. The first parses the original line, reading it as three arguments. The second parses the third argument, reading it as 11 arguments. At this point, it is important that the "-" signs are escaped, otherwise this parser will see them as constituting an expect-send-expect sequence. When the "!" character is seen, the execution parser reads the first command as three arguments, and then sh(1) itself expands the argument after the -c . As we wish to send the output back to the modem, in the first example we redirect our output to file descriptor 2 (stderr) so that ppp itself sends and logs it, and in the second example, we just output to stdout, which is attached directly to the modem.
This, of course means that it is possible to execute an entirely external "chat" command rather than using the internal one. See chat(8) for a good alternative.
The external command that is executed is subjected to the same special word expansions as the "!bg" command.
If no arguments are given, the endpoint discriminator is reset.
| set escape value... |
| || This option is similar to the "set accmap" option above. It allows the user to specify a set of characters that will be 'escaped' as they travel across the link. |
| set filter dial|alive|in|out rule-no Xo |
| || permit|deny|clear| rule-no [!] [[host] src_addr [/ width] [dst_addr [/ width]] [proto] [src lt|eq|gt port] [dst lt|eq|gt port] [estab] [syn] [finrst] [timeout secs]] |
| || ppp supports four filter sets. The alive filter specifies packets that keep the connection alive - resetting the idle timer. The dial filter specifies packets that cause ppp to dial when in -auto mode. The in filter specifies packets that are allowed to travel into the machine and the out filter specifies packets that are allowed out of the machine. |
Filtering is done prior to any IP alterations that might be done by the NAT engine on outgoing packets and after any IP alterations that might be done by the NAT engine on incoming packets. By default all empty filter sets allow all packets to pass. Rules are processed in order according to rule-no (unless skipped by specifying a rule number as the action). Up to 40 rules may be given for each set. If a packet does not match any of the rules in a given set, it is discarded. In the case of in and out filters, this means that the packet is dropped. In the case of alive filters it means that the packet will not reset the idle timer (even if the in / out filter has a "timeout" value) and in the case of dial filters it means that the packet will not trigger a dial. A packet failing to trigger a dial will be dropped rather than queued. Refer to the section on PACKET FILTERING above for further details.
| set hangup chat-script |
| || This specifies the chat script that will be used to reset the device before it is closed. It should not normally be necessary, but can be used for devices that fail to reset themselves properly on close. |
| set help|? [command] |
| || This command gives a summary of available set commands, or if command is specified, the command usage is shown. |
| set ifaddr[myaddr |
| || [/ nn] [hisaddr [/ nn] [netmask [triggeraddr] ]] ] This command specifies the IP addresses that will be used during IPCP negotiation. Addresses are specified using the format |
Where "a.b.c.d" is the preferred IP, but nn specifies how many bits of the address we will insist on. If / nn is omitted, it defaults to "/32" unless the IP address is 0.0.0.0 in which case it defaults to "/0".
If you wish to assign a dynamic IP number to the peer, hisaddr may also be specified as a range of IP numbers in the format
IP[- IP Xo
set ifaddr 10.0.0.1 10.0.1.2-10.0.1.10,10.0.1.20
will only negotiate "10.0.0.1" as the local IP number, but may assign any of the given 10 IP numbers to the peer. If the peer requests one of these numbers, and that number is not already in use, ppp will grant the peers request. This is useful if the peer wants to re-establish a link using the same IP number as was previously allocated (thus maintaining any existing tcp or udp connections).
If the peer requests an IP number that is either outside of this range or is already in use, ppp will suggest a random unused IP number from the range.
If triggeraddr is specified, it is used in place of myaddr in the initial IPCP negotiation. However, only an address in the myaddr range will be accepted. This is useful when negotiating with some PPP implementations that will not assign an IP number unless their peer requests "0.0.0.0".
It should be noted that in -auto mode, ppp will configure the interface immediately upon reading the "set ifaddr" line in the config file. In any other mode, these values are just used for IPCP negotiations, and the interface is not configured until the IPCP layer is up.
Note that the HISADDR argument may be overridden by the third field in the ppp.secret file once the client has authenticated itself (if PAP or CHAP are "enabled"). Refer to the AUTHENTICATING INCOMING CONNECTIONS section for details.
In all cases, if the interface is already configured, ppp will try to maintain the interface IP numbers so that any existing bound sockets will remain valid.
| set ifqueue packets |
| || Set the maximum number of packets that ppp will read from the tunnel interface while data cannot be sent to any of the available links. This queue limit is necessary to flow control outgoing data as the tunnel interface is likely to be far faster than the combined links available to ppp. |
If packets is set to a value less than the number of links, ppp will read up to that value regardless. This prevents any possible latency problems.
The default value for packets is "30".
| set ccpretry|ccpretries[timeout |
| || [reqtries [trmtries]] ] |
| set chapretry|chapretries[timeout |
| || [reqtries] ] |
| set ipcpretry|ipcpretries[timeout |
| || [reqtries [trmtries]] ] |
| set ipv6cpretry|ipv6cpretries[timeout |
| || [reqtries [trmtries]] ] |
| set lcpretry|lcpretries[timeout |
| || [reqtries [trmtries]] ] |
| set papretry|papretries[timeout |
| || [reqtries] ] These commands set the number of seconds that ppp will wait before resending Finite State Machine (FSM) Request packets. The default timeout for all FSMs is 3 seconds (which should suffice in most cases). |
If reqtries is specified, it tells ppp how many configuration request attempts it should make while receiving no reply from the peer before giving up. The default is 5 attempts for CCP, LCP and IPCP and 3 attempts for PAP and CHAP.
If trmtries is specified, it tells ppp how many terminate requests should be sent before giving up waiting for the peers response. The default is 3 attempts. Authentication protocols are not terminated and it is therefore invalid to specify trmtries for PAP or CHAP.
In order to avoid negotiations with the peer that will never converge, ppp will only send at most 3 times the configured number of reqtries in any given negotiation session before giving up and closing that layer.
| set log Xo |
| || [local] [+|-] value ... |
| || This command allows the adjustment of the current log level. Refer to the Logging Facility section for further details. |
| set login chat-script |
| || This chat-script compliments the dial-script. If both are specified, the login script will be executed after the dial script. Escape sequences available in the dial script are also available here. |
| set logout chat-script |
| || This specifies the chat script that will be used to logout before the hangup script is called. It should not normally be necessary. |
| set lqrperiod|echoperiod frequency |
| || This command sets the frequency in seconds at which LQR or LCP ECHO packets are sent. The default is 30 seconds. You must also use the "enable lqr" and/or "enable echo" commands if you wish to send LQR or LCP ECHO requests to the peer. |
| set mode interactive|auto|ddial|background |
| || This command allows you to change the 'mode' of the specified link. This is normally only useful in multi-link mode, but may also be used in uni-link mode. |
It is not possible to change a link that is 'direct' or 'dedicated'.
Note: If you issue the command "set mode auto", and have network address translation enabled, it may be useful to "enable iface-alias" afterwards. This will allow ppp to do the necessary address translations to enable the process that triggers the connection to connect once the link is up despite the peer assigning us a new (dynamic) IP address.
| set mppe [40|56|128|* [stateless|stateful|*]] |
| || This option selects the encryption parameters used when negotiation MPPE. MPPE can be disabled entirely with the "disable mppe" command. If no arguments are given, ppp will attempt to negotiate a stateful link with a 128 bit key, but will agree to whatever the peer requests (including no encryption at all). |
If any arguments are given, ppp will insist on using MPPE and will close the link if it is rejected by the peer (Note; this behaviour can be overridden by a configured RADIUS server).
The first argument specifies the number of bits that ppp should insist on during negotiations and the second specifies whether ppp should insist on stateful or stateless mode. In stateless mode, the encryption dictionary is re-initialised with every packet according to an encryption key that is changed with every packet. In stateful mode, the encryption dictionary is re-initialised every 256 packets or after the loss of any data and the key is changed every 256 packets. Stateless mode is less efficient but is better for unreliable transport layers.
| set mrru [value] |
| || Setting this option enables Multi-link PPP negotiations, also known as Multi-link Protocol or MP. There is no default MRRU (Maximum Reconstructed Receive Unit) value. If no argument is given, multi-link mode is disabled. |
| set mru Xo |
| || [max [imum]] [value] |
| || The default MRU (Maximum Receive Unit) is 1500. If it is increased, the other side *may* increase its MTU. In theory there is no point in decreasing the MRU to below the default as the PPP protocol says implementations *must* be able to accept packets of at least 1500 octets. |
If the "maximum" keyword is used, ppp will refuse to negotiate a higher value. The maximum MRU can be set to 2048 at most. Setting a maximum of less than 1500 violates the PPP rfc, but may sometimes be necessary. For example, PPPoE imposes a maximum of 1492 due to hardware limitations.
If no argument is given, 1500 is assumed. A value must be given when "maximum" is specified.
| set mtu Xo |
| || [max [imum]] [value] |
| || The default MTU is 1500. At negotiation time, ppp will accept whatever MRU the peer requests (assuming it is not less than 296 bytes or greater than the assigned maximum). If the MTU is set, ppp will not accept MRU values less than value. When negotiations are complete, the MTU is used when writing to the interface, even if the peer requested a higher value MRU. This can be useful for limiting your packet size (giving better bandwidth sharing at the expense of more header data). |
If the "maximum" keyword is used, ppp will refuse to negotiate a higher value. The maximum MTU can be set to 2048 at most. Note, it is necessary to use the "maximum" keyword to limit the MTU when using PPPoE.
If no value is given, 1500, or whatever the peer asks for is used. A value must be given when "maximum" is specified.
| set nbns [x.x.x.x [y.y.y.y]] |
| || This option allows the setting of the Microsoft NetBIOS name server values to be returned at the peers request. If no values are given, ppp will reject any such requests. |
| set openmode active|passive [delay] |
| || By default, openmode is always active with a one second delay. That is, ppp will always initiate LCP/IPCP/CCP negotiation one second after the line comes up. If you want to wait for the peer to initiate negotiations, you can use the value passive. If you want to initiate negotiations immediately or after more than one second, the appropriate delay may be specified here in seconds. |
| set parity odd|even|none|mark |
| || This allows the line parity to be set. The default value is none. |
| set phone telno Xo |
| || [| backupnumber ...[:nextnumber] ...] |
| || This allows the specification of the phone number to be used in place of the \\T string in the dial and login chat scripts. Multiple phone numbers may be given separated either by a pipe ("|") or a colon (":"). |
Numbers after the pipe are only dialed if the dial or login script for the previous number failed.
Numbers after the colon are tried sequentially, irrespective of the reason the line was dropped.
If multiple numbers are given, ppp will dial them according to these rules until a connection is made, retrying the maximum number of times specified by "set redial" below. In -background mode, each number is attempted at most once.
| set pppoe [standard|3Com] |
| || This option configures the underlying ng_pppoe(4) node to either standard RFC2516 PPPoE or proprietary 3Com mode. If not set the system default will be used. |
| set [proc Xo] |
| || title [value] |
| || The current process title as displayed by ps(1) is changed according to value. If value is not specified, the original process title is restored. All the word replacements done by the shell commands (see the "bg" command above) are done here too. |
Note, if USER is required in the process title, the "set proctitle" command must appear in ppp.linkup, as it is not known when the commands in ppp.conf are executed.
| set radius [config-file] |
| || This command enables RADIUS support (if it is compiled in). config-file refers to the radius client configuration file as described in radius.conf(5). If PAP, CHAP, MSCHAP or MSCHAPv2 are "enable d", ppp behaves as a N etwork A ccess S erver and uses the configured RADIUS server to authenticate rather than authenticating from the ppp.secret file or from the passwd database. |
If none of PAP, CHAP, MSCHAP or MSCHAPv2 are enabled, "set radius" will do nothing.
ppp uses the following attributes from the RADIUS reply:
| RAD_FRAMED_IP_ADDRESS |
| || The peer IP address is set to the given value. |
| RAD_FRAMED_IP_NETMASK |
| || The tun interface netmask is set to the given value. |
| RAD_FRAMED_MTU |
| || If the given MTU is less than the peers MRU as agreed during LCP negotiation, *and* it is less that any configured MTU (see the "set mru" command), the tun interface MTU is set to the given value. |
| RAD_FRAMED_COMPRESSION |
| || If the received compression type is "1", ppp will request VJ compression during IPCP negotiations despite any "disable vj" configuration command. |
| RAD_FILTER_ID |
| || If this attribute is supplied, ppp will attempt to use it as an additional label to load from the ppp.linkup and ppp.linkdown files. The load will be attempted before (and in addition to) the normal label search. If the label does not exist, no action is taken and ppp proceeds to the normal load using the current label. |
| RAD_FRAMED_ROUTE |
| || The received string is expected to be in the format dest [/ bits] gw [metrics]. Any specified metrics are ignored. MYADDR and HISADDR are understood as valid values for dest and gw, "default" can be used for dest to sepcify the default route, and "0.0.0.0" is understood to be the same as "default" for dest and HISADDR for gw. |
For example, a returned value of "126.96.36.199/24 0.0.0.0 1 2 -1 3 400" would result in a routing table entry to the 188.8.131.52/24 network via HISADDR and a returned value of "0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0" or "default HISADDR" would result in a default route to HISADDR.
All RADIUS routes are applied after any sticky routes are applied, making RADIUS routes override configured routes. This also applies for RADIUS routes that do not include the MYADDR or HISADDR keywords.
| RAD_FRAMED_IPV6_PREFIX |
| || If this attribute is supplied, the value is substituted for IPV6PREFIX in a command. You may pass it to such as DHCPv6 for delegating an IPv6 prefix to a peer. |
| RAD_FRAMED_IPV6_ROUTE |
| || The received string is expected to be in the format dest [/ bits] gw [metrics]. Any specified metrics are ignored. MYADDR6 and HISADDR6 are understood as valid values for dest and gw, "default" can be used for dest to sepcify the default route, and "::" is understood to be the same as "default" for dest and HISADDR6 for gw. |
For example, a returned value of "3ffe:505:abcd::/48 ::" would result in a routing table entry to the 3ffe:505:abcd::/48 network via HISADDR6 and a returned value of ":: ::" or "default HISADDR6" would result in a default route to HISADDR6.
All RADIUS IPv6 routes are applied after any sticky routes are applied, making RADIUS IPv6 routes override configured routes. This also applies for RADIUS IPv6 routes that do not include the MYADDR6 or HISADDR6 keywords.
| RAD_SESSION_TIMEOUT |
| || If supplied, the client connection is closed after the given number of seconds. |
| RAD_REPLY_MESSAGE |
| || If supplied, this message is passed back to the peer as the authentication SUCCESS text. |
| RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_CHAP_ERROR |
| || If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is supplied, it is passed back to the peer as the authentication FAILURE text. |
| RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_CHAP2_SUCCESS |
| || If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is supplied and if MS-CHAPv2 authentication is being used, it is passed back to the peer as the authentication SUCCESS text. |
| RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_ENCRYPTION_POLICY |
| || If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is supplied and has a value of 2 (Required), ppp will insist that MPPE encryption is used (even if no "set mppe" configuration command has been given with arguments). If it is supplied with a value of 1 (Allowed), encryption is made optional (despite any "set mppe" configuration commands with arguments). |
| RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_ENCRYPTION_TYPES |
| || If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is supplied, bits 1 and 2 are examined. If either or both are set, 40 bit and/or 128 bit (respectively) encryption options are set, overriding any given first argument to the "set mppe" command. Note, it is not currently possible for the RADIUS server to specify 56 bit encryption. |
| RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_RECV_KEY |
| || If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is supplied, it is value is used as the master key for decryption of incoming data. When clients are authenticated using MSCHAPv2, the RADIUS server MUST provide this attribute if inbound MPPE is to function. |
| RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_SEND_KEY |
| || If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is supplied, it is value is used as the master key for encryption of outgoing data. When clients are authenticated using MSCHAPv2, the RADIUS server MUST provide this attribute if outbound MPPE is to function. |
Values received from the RADIUS server may be viewed using "show bundle".
| set rad_alive timeout |
| || When RADIUS is configured, setting "rad_alive" to a non-zero timeout value will tell ppp to sent RADIUS accounting information to the RADIUS server every timeout seconds. |
| set reconnect timeout ntries |
| || Should the line drop unexpectedly (due to loss of CD or LQR failure), a connection will be re-established after the given timeout. The line will be re-connected at most ntries times. Ntries defaults to zero. A value of random for timeout will result in a variable pause, somewhere between 1 and 30 seconds. |
| set recvpipe [value] |
| || This sets the routing table RECVPIPE value. The optimum value is just over twice the MTU value. If value is unspecified or zero, the default kernel controlled value is used. |
| set redial secs Xo |
| || [+ inc [- max] [.next]] [attempts] |
| || ppp can be instructed to attempt to redial attempts times. If more than one phone number is specified (see "set phone" above), a pause of next is taken before dialing each number. A pause of secs is taken before starting at the first number again. A literal value of "random" may be used here in place of secs and next, causing a random delay of between 1 and 30 seconds. |
If inc is specified, its value is added onto secs each time ppp tries a new number. secs will only be incremented at most max times. max defaults to 10.
Note, the secs delay will be effective, even after attempts has been exceeded, so an immediate manual dial may appear to have done nothing. If an immediate dial is required, a "!" should immediately follow the "open" keyword. See the "open" description above for further details.
| set sendpipe [value] |
| || This sets the routing table SENDPIPE value. The optimum value is just over twice the MTU value. If value is unspecified or zero, the default kernel controlled value is used. |
| "set server|socket" TcpPort | Xo |
| || LocalName |none|open|closed [password [mask]] |
| || This command tells ppp to listen on the given socket or 'diagnostic port' for incoming command connections. |
The word "none" instructs ppp to close any existing socket and clear the socket configuration. The word "open" instructs ppp to attempt to re-open the port. The word "closed" instructs ppp to close the open port.
If you wish to specify a local domain socket, LocalName must be specified as an absolute file name, otherwise it is assumed to be the name or number of a TCP port. You may specify the octal umask to be used with a local domain socket. Refer to umask(2) for umask details. Refer to services(5) for details of how to translate TCP port names.
You must also specify the password that must be entered by the client (using the "passwd" variable above) when connecting to this socket. If the password is specified as an empty string, no password is required for connecting clients.
When specifying a local domain socket, the first "%d" sequence found in the socket name will be replaced with the current interface unit number. This is useful when you wish to use the same profile for more than one connection.
In a similar manner TCP sockets may be prefixed with the "+" character, in which case the current interface unit number is added to the port number.
When using ppp with a server socket, the pppctl(8) command is the preferred mechanism of communications. Currently, telnet(1) can also be used, but link encryption may be implemented in the future, so telnet(1) should be avoided.
Note; SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 interact with the diagnostic socket.
| set speed value |
| || This sets the speed of the serial device. If speed is specified as "sync", ppp treats the device as a synchronous device. |
Certain device types will know whether they should be specified as synchronous or asynchronous. These devices will override incorrect settings and log a warning to this effect.
| set stopped [LCPseconds [CCPseconds]] |
| || If this option is set, ppp will time out after the given FSM (Finite State Machine) has been in the stopped state for the given number of "seconds". This option may be useful if the peer sends a terminate request, but never actually closes the connection despite our sending a terminate acknowledgement. This is also useful if you wish to "set openmode passive" and time out if the peer does not send a Configure Request within the given time. Use "set log +lcp +ccp" to make ppp log the appropriate state transitions. |
The default value is zero, where ppp does not time out in the stopped state.
This value should not be set to less than the openmode delay (see "set openmode" above).
| set timeout idleseconds [mintimeout] |
| || This command allows the setting of the idle timer. Refer to the section titled SETTING THE IDLE TIMER for further details. |
If mintimeout is specified, ppp will never idle out before the link has been up for at least that number of seconds.
| set urgent Xo |
| || [tcp|udp|none] [[+|-] port ...] |
| || This command controls the ports that ppp prioritizes when transmitting data. The default priority TCP ports are ports 21 (ftp control), 22 (ssh), 23 (telnet), 513 (login), 514 (shell), 543 (klogin) and 544 (kshell). There are no priority UDP ports by default. See services(5) for details. |
If neither "tcp" or "udp" are specified, "tcp" is assumed.
If no port s are given, the priority port lists are cleared (although if "tcp" or "udp" is specified, only that list is cleared). If the first port argument is prefixed with a plus ("+") or a minus ("-"), the current list is adjusted, otherwise the list is reassigned. port s prefixed with a plus or not prefixed at all are added to the list and port s prefixed with a minus are removed from the list.
If "none" is specified, all priority port lists are disabled and even IPTOS_LOWDELAY packets are not prioritised.
| set vj slotcomp on|off |
| || This command tells ppp whether it should attempt to negotiate VJ slot compression. By default, slot compression is turned on. |
| set vj slots nslots |
| || This command sets the initial number of slots that ppp will try to negotiate with the peer when VJ compression is enabled (see the 'enable' command above). It defaults to a value of 16. Nslots must be between 4 and 16 inclusive. |
| shell|! [command] |
| || If command is not specified a shell is invoked according to the SHELL environment variable. Otherwise, the given command is executed. Word replacement is done in the same way as for the "!bg" command as described above. |
Use of the ! character requires a following space as with any of the other commands. You should note that this command is executed in the foreground; ppp will not continue running until this process has exited. Use the bg command if you wish processing to happen in the background.
| show var |
| || This command allows the user to examine the following: |
| show bundle |
| || Show the current bundle settings. |
| show ccp |
| || Show the current CCP compression statistics. |
| show compress |
| || Show the current VJ compression statistics. |
| show escape |
| || Show the current escape characters. |
| show filter [name] |
| || List the current rules for the given filter. If name is not specified, all filters are shown. |
| show hdlc |
| || Show the current HDLC statistics. |
| show help|? |
| || Give a summary of available show commands. |
| show iface |
| || Show the current interface information (the same as "iface show"). |
| show ipcp |
| || Show the current IPCP statistics. |
| show layers |
| || Show the protocol layers currently in use. |
| show lcp |
| || Show the current LCP statistics. |
| show [data Xo] |
| || link |
| || Show high level link information. |
| show links |
| || Show a list of available logical links. |
| show log |
| || Show the current log values. |
| show mem |
| || Show current memory statistics. |
| show ncp |
| || Show the current NCP statistics. |
| show physical |
| || Show low level link information. |
| show mp |
| || Show Multi-link information. |
| show proto |
| || Show current protocol totals. |
| show route |
| || Show the current routing tables. |
| show stopped |
| || Show the current stopped timeouts. |
| show timer |
| || Show the active alarm timers. |
| show version |
| || Show the current version number of ppp. |