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TAIL (1) | General commands | Unix Manual Pages | :man

NAME

tail - display the last part of a file

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Exit Status
See Also
Standards
History

SYNOPSIS

tail [ -F -| -f -| -r ] [ -b number | -c number | -n number ] []

DESCRIPTION

The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output.

The display begins at a byte, line or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus (‘‘+’’) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, "-c +2" starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus (‘‘-’’) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, "-n 2" displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is "-n 10", or the last 10 lines of the input.

The options are as follows:

-b number
The location is number 512-byte blocks.
-c number
The location is number bytes.
-f The -f option causes tail to not stop when end of file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. The -f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO.
-F The -F option implies the -f option, but tail will also check to see if the file being followed has been renamed or rotated. The file is closed and reopened when tail detects that the filename being read from has a new inode number. The -F option is ignored if reading from standard input rather than a file.
-n number
The location is number lines.
-r The -r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the -b , -c and -n options. When the -r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the -r option is to display all of the input.

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string "==> XXX <==" where "XXX" is the name of the file.

EXIT STATUS


.Ex -std

SEE ALSO

cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

STANDARDS

HISTORY


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